To determine if prophylactic antibiotic use lowers the incidence of infection in the first week following tunneled dialysis catheter exchange, researchers from American Access Care of N.J. and other industry and academic institutions conducted a study presented at SIR 2013, held in April 2013 in New Orleans.
Drawing subjects from ambulatory surgery centers that perform dialysis catheter exchanges for poorly functioning catheters, the researchers evaluated patients' outcomes one week post-procedure. (Only patients without preexisting infection were included in the analysis, which was made of data drawn from the time period 1/1/2010 to 12/31/2011.) The data recorded when the procedures were performed included presence of preexisting infection, use and type of antibiotic, and route and timing of administration. Follow-up phone calls scheduled 6-8 days after intervention, were made to each patient's dialysis center to determine the presence of infection, bleeding, nausea/vomiting, respiratory difficulty, and pain.
Following data analysis, the investigators found a significant decrease in the rate of infection in patients who received IV antibiotics (primarily cefazolin 1gm, given pre-procedure or intraprocedure). But oral antibiotics given peri-procedure did not decrease infection rates. Further, there was no significant difference in rates of other complications between those who did and did not receive antibiotics.